Some of the main processes that can be applied to vector data in a GIS include:
Buffering: This process creates a zone around a vector feature, such as a point, line, or polygon, and is often used to create a spatial context for analysis or to identify features that are within a certain distance of a given feature.
Clipping: This process extracts a portion of a vector dataset based on a specified boundary or area of interest.
Overlay: This process combines two or more vector datasets in order to create a new dataset that contains features from both datasets.
Dissolve: This process combines adjacent polygons that share a common attribute into a single polygon.
Intersection: This process identifies the spatial intersection of two vector datasets, such as the points where two roads intersect or the area where two land use categories overlap.
Union: This process combines the features of two vector datasets into a single dataset.
These processes can be used to manipulate vector data and to identify patterns, trends, and relationships in the data.