- Laser Emission: A LiDAR sensor emits laser pulses toward the target area.
- Reflection: When the laser pulse hits an object or surface, it reflects some of the light back to the LiDAR sensor.
- Distance Measurement: The LiDAR sensor measures the time it takes for the laser pulse to return. Since the speed of light is constant, this time measurement allows the LiDAR sensor to calculate the distance between itself and the object or surface.
- Multiple Measurements: LiDAR sensors emit many laser pulses per second and record the distances to multiple points on objects or surfaces within the field of view. This results in a dense collection of data points.
These data points are typically represented as (x, y, z) coordinates in a three-dimensional space, where:
x represents the horizontal position (left-right)
y represents the horizontal position (forward-backward)
z represents the vertical position (up-down)